Edward Tobinick Biography

Edward Tobinick MD

Edward Tobinick MD, the founder of the Institute of Neurological Recovery, has invented innovative treatment approaches for a diverse variety of medical conditions with widespread unmet medical need, including a variety of disorders that involve neuroinflammation.  Through November 2012 Dr. Tobinick has been awarded 22 U.S. patents and an Australian patent, with multiple additional pending U.S. and foreign patents. His published papers and patents have been cited by more than 500 scientific articles and patent applications from leading academic centers and pharmaceutical companies around the world [see references below]. Scientific researchers from major academic medical centers both in the U.S. and abroad have performed collaborative research with Dr. Tobinick to investigate his unique methods designed to deliver large molecules to the brain by bypassing the blood-brain barrier. There is world-wide interest in Dr. Tobinick’s scientific work.

Dr. Tobinick graduated Phi Beta Kappa and Magna Cum Laude with honors in biology from Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts, received his M.D. from the University of California San Diego School of Medicine in La Jolla, California, and completed post-graduate residencies at UCLA. He is the founder of the Institute of Neurological Recovery in Los Angeles and Newport Beach, California and the INR PLLC in Boca Raton, Florida.  Dr. Tobinick has been an invited ad hoc expert reviewer for the journals Brain Research, CNS Drugs, Current Alzheimer Research, Experimental Neurology, Future Neurology, Journal of Neurochemistry, Journal of Neuroimmunology, Neuroscience, and Pharmaceutical Medicine and a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Neuroinflammation.

Selected Relevant Scientific References

2012-2013 References[1-41]

2003-2011 References[42-118]

*Indicates that the Scientific Reference listed has cited one of more of the scientific publications of Edward Tobinick

*1.            Acton QA: Chapter 15: Neurotherapeutics. In Issues in Neurological Surgery and Specialties: 2011 Edition. Edited by Acton QA. Atlanta, Georgia: ScholarlyEditions; 2012: 1601-1631

*2.            Belarbi K, Jopson T, Tweedie D, Arellano C, Luo W, Greig NH, Rosi S: TNF-alpha protein synthesis inhibitor restores neuronal function and reverses cognitive deficits induced by chronic neuroinflammation. J Neuroinflammation 2012, 9:23.

3.            Chou SH, Feske SK, Atherton J, Konigsberg RG, De Jager PL, Du R, Ogilvy CS, Lo EH, Ning M: Early Elevation of Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Is Associated With Poor Outcome in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. J Investig Med 2012.

*4.            Clark I: New hope for survivors of stroke and traumatic brain injury. CNS Drugs 2012, 26:1071-1072.

*5.            Clark I, Atwood C, Bowen R, Paz-Filho G, Vissel B: Tumor Necrosis Factor-Induced Cerebral Insulin Resistance in Alzheimer’s Disease Links Numerous Treatment Rationales. Pharmacological Reviews 2012, 64:1004-1026.

*6.            Delrieu J, Piau A, Vellas B: Chapter 78: Drug Development and Alzheimer’s Disease. In Pathy’s Principles and Practice of Geriatric Medicine, Fifth Edition. Edited by Sinclair AJ, Morley JE, Vellas B. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012

*7.            Elcioglu H, Kabasakal L, Alan S, Salva E, Tufan F, Karan M: Thalidomide attenuates learning and memory deficits induced by intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin in rats. Biotech Histochem 2012.

*8.            Ferraccioli G, Gremese E, Carbonella A, Alivernini S: Rheumatoid Arthritis and Alzheimer Disease: Possible Cellular and Molecular Links. J Gerontol Geriatric Res 2012, 1:e104.

*9.            Gabbita SP, Srivastava MK, Eslami P, Johnson MF, Kobritz NK, Tweedie D, Greig NH, Zemlan FP, Sharma SP, Harris-White ME: Early intervention with a small molecule inhibitor for tumor necrosis factor-alpha prevents cognitive deficits in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. J Neuroinflammation 2012, 9:99.

*10.            Gruber HE, Hoelscher GL, Ingram JA, Hanley EN, Jr.: Genome-wide analysis of pain-, nerve- and neurotrophin -related gene expression in the degenerating human annulus. Mol Pain 2012, 8:63.

*11.            Jiang T, Yu JT, Tan L: Novel disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 2012, 31:475-492.

*12.            Lauterbach EC: Psychotropic drug effects on gene transcriptomics relevant to Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2012, 26:1-7.

*13.            Maccioni RB, Farias G, Rojo LE, Jimenez JM: In Search of Therapeutic Solutions for Alzheimer’s Disease. In When Things Go Wrong – Diseases and Disorders of the Human Brain. Edited by Mantamadiotis T. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech; 2012: 125-150

*14.            Matias-Guiu JA, Garcia-Ramos R: Primary progressive aphasia: from syndrome to disease. Neurologia 2012.

*15.            Maudsley S, Chadwick W: Progressive and unconventional pharmacotherapeutic approaches to Alzheimer’s disease therapy. Curr Alzheimer Res 2012, 9:1-4.

16.            Ohtori S, Miyagi M, Eguchi Y, Inoue G, Orita S, Ochiai N, Kishida S, Kuniyoshi K, Nakamura J, Aoki Y, et al: Epidural administration of spinal nerves with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor, etanercept, compared with dexamethasone for treatment of sciatica in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective randomized study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2012, 37:439-444.

*17.            Ooi L, al. e: New Drugs Under Development for Alzheimer’s Disease. In Advances in Alzheimer’s Disease Management. Edited by Gauthier S, Rosa-Neto P; 2012: 58-67

*18.            Raffaghello L, Bianchi G, Pistoia V: Immunosuppressive treatments in acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2012, 13:59-67.

*19.            Ramesh V, Nair D, Zhang SX, Hakim F, Kaushal N, Kayali F, Wang Y, Li RC, Carreras A, Gozal D: Disrupted sleep without sleep curtailment induces sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction via the tumor necrosis factor-alpha pathway. J Neuroinflammation 2012, 9:91.

20.            Roh M, Zhang Y, Murakami Y, Thanos A, Lee SC, Vavvas DG, Benowitz LI, Miller JW: Etanercept, a widely used inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), prevents retinal ganglion cell loss in a rat model of glaucoma. PLoS One 2012, 7:e40065.

*21.            Santello M, Volterra A: TNFalpha in synaptic function: switching gears. Trends Neurosci 2012, 35:638-647.

22.            Smith C, Gentleman SM, Leclercq PD, Murray LS, Griffin WS, Graham DI, Nicoll JA: The neuroinflammatory response in humans after traumatic brain injury. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2012.

*23.            Smith JA, Das A, Ray SK, Banik NL: Role of pro-inflammatory cytokines released from microglia in neurodegenerative diseases. Brain Res Bull 2012, 87:10-20.

*24.            Steele ML, Robinson SR: Reactive astrocytes give neurons less support: implications for Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 2012, 33:423 e421-413.

*25.            Tobinick E: Deciphering the physiology underlying the rapid clinical effects of perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res 2012, 9:99-109.

*26.            Tobinick E, Kim NM, Reyzin G, Rodriguez-Romanacce H, Depuy V: Selective TNF Inhibition for Chronic Stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury : An Observational Study Involving 629 Consecutive Patients Treated with Perispinal Etanercept. CNS Drugs 2012, 26:1051-1070.

*27.            Tweedie D, Ferguson RA, Fishman K, Frankola KA, Van Praag H, Holloway HW, Luo W, Li Y, Caracciolo L, Russo I, et al: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha synthesis inhibitor 3,6′-dithiothalidomide attenuates markers of inflammation, Alzheimer pathology and behavioral deficits in animal models of neuroinflammation and Alzheimer’s disease. J Neuroinflammation 2012, 9:106.

*28.            Wilcock DM: Neuroinflammation in the aging down syndrome brain; lessons from Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res 2012, 2012:170276.

*29.            Williams M, Coyle JT: Chapter 7: Historical perspectives on the discovery and development of drugs to treat neurological disorders. In Translational Neuroscience: Applications in Psychiatry, Neurology, and Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Edited by Barrett JE, Coyle JT, Williams M. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press; 2012: 129-148

*30.            Yoshiyama Y, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ: Therapeutic strategies for tau mediated neurodegeneration. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2012.

*31.            Bai L, Song N, Yu J, Tan L, Shen Y, Xie J, Jiang H: Elevated Plasma Levels of Soluble TNFRs and TACE Activity in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients of Northern Han Chinese Descent. Curr Alzheimer Res 2013, 10:57-62.

*32.            Brambilla L, Martorana F, Rossi D: Astrocyte signaling and neurodegeneration: New insights into CNS disorders. Prion 2013, 7:28-36.

33.            Chio CC, Chang CH, Wang CC, Cheong CU, Chao CM, Cheng BC, Yang CZ, Chang CP: Etanercept attenuates traumatic brain injury in rats by reducing early microglial expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. BMC Neurosci 2013, 14:33.

34.            Griffin WS: Neuroinflammatory cytokine signaling and Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med 2013, 368:770-771.

35.            Johnson VE, Stewart JE, Begbie FD, Trojanowski JQ, Smith DH, Stewart W: Inflammation and white matter degeneration persist for years after a single traumatic brain injury. Brain 2013, 136:28-42.

36.            King MD, Alleyne CH, Jr., Dhandapani KM: TNF-alpha receptor antagonist, R-7050, improves neurological outcomes following intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Neurosci Lett 2013.

37.            Kumar A, Stoica BA, Sabirzhanov B, Burns MP, Faden AI, Loane DJ: Traumatic brain injury in aged animals increases lesion size and chronically alters microglial/macrophage classical and alternative activation states. Neurobiol Aging 2013, 34:1397-1411.

*38.            Liu Q, Jin L, Mahon BH, Chordia MD, Shen FH, Li X: A Novel Treatment of Neuroinflammation Against Low Back Pain by Soluble Fullerol Nanoparticles. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2013.

39.            Niranjan R: Molecular Basis of Etiological Implications in Alzheimer’s Disease: Focus on Neuroinflammation. Mol Neurobiol 2013.

40.            O’Connor JJ: Targeting tumour necrosis factor-alpha in hypoxia and synaptic signalling. Ir J Med Sci 2013, 182:157-162.

*41.            Swardfager W, Winer DA, Herrmann N, Winer S, Lanctot KL: Interleukin-17 in post-stroke neurodegeneration. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2013, 37:436-447.

42.            Tarkowski E, Andreasen N, Tarkowski A, Blennow K: Intrathecal inflammation precedes development of Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003, 74:1200-1205.

*43.            Tobinick EL, Britschgi-Davoodifar S: Perispinal TNF-alpha inhibition for discogenic pain. Swiss Med Wkly 2003, 133:170-177.

44.            Gentleman SM, Leclercq PD, Moyes L, Graham DI, Smith C, Griffin WS, Nicoll JA: Long-term intracerebral inflammatory response after traumatic brain injury. Forensic Sci Int 2004, 146:97-104.

45.            Sjogren M, Folkesson S, Blennow K, Tarkowski E: Increased intrathecal inflammatory activity in frontotemporal dementia: pathophysiological implications. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2004, 75:1107-1111.

*46.            Tobinick E, Davoodifar S: Efficacy of etanercept delivered by perispinal administration for chronic back and/or neck disc-related pain: a study of clinical observations in 143 patients. Curr Med Res Opin 2004, 20:1075-1085.

*47.            Inglis JJ, Hunt SP, Kidd BL: Mechanisms of Inflammatory Hyperalgesia. In From Basic Pain Mechanisms to Headache. Edited by Olesen J, Jensen T. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press; 2006

*48.            Myers RR, Campana WM, Shubayev VI: The role of neuroinflammation in neuropathic pain: mechanisms and therapeutic targets. Drug Discov Today 2006, 11:8-20.

*49.            Tobinick E, Gross H, Weinberger A, Cohen H: TNF-alpha modulation for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: a 6-month pilot study. MedGenMed 2006, 8:25.

50.            Tobinick E, Vega CP: The cerebrospinal venous system: anatomy, physiology, and clinical implications. MedGenMed 2006, 8:53.

*51.            DanaAlliance: The 2007 Progress Report on Brain Research. New York: Dana Press; 2007.

*52.            DeWitte M, Shealy DJ, Nakada MT, Anderson GM: Chapter 4: Tumor Necrosis Factor and Cancer. In Cytokines in the Genesis and Treament of Cancer. Edited by Caligiuri MA, Lotze MT. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press; 2007: 71-90

*53.            do Couto FS, de Mendonca A: Chapter 11: Aging and Cognitive Decline: Neuroprotective Strategies. In Interaction Between Neurons and Glia in Aging and Disease. Edited by Malva JO. New York, N.Y.: Springer; 2007: 245-268

*54.            Tobinick E: Perispinal etanercept for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res 2007, 4:550-552.

*55.            Tweedie D, Sambamurti K, Greig NH: TNF-alpha Inhibition as a Treatment Strategy for Neurodegenerative Disorders: New Drug Candidates and Targets. Curr Alzheimer Res 2007, 4:375-378.

*56.            Van Eldik LJ, Thompson WL, Ranaivo HR, Behanna HA, Watterson DM: Glia Proinflammatory Cytokine Upgregulation as a Therapeutic Target for Neurodegenerative Disease: Function-Based and Target-Based Discovery Approaches. In Neuroinflammation in Neuronal Death and Repair. Edited by Bagetta G: Elsevier; 2007: 278-297

*57.            Auffray C: Evaluations for Tobinick, EL and Gross H J of Neuroinflammation. Faculty of 1000 Biology 2008, 5:2.

*58.            Griffin WS: Perispinal etanercept: potential as an Alzheimer therapeutic. J Neuroinflammation 2008, 5:3.

*59.            Ignatowski TA, Spengler RN: II. Cytokines in the Brain, B. Cytokines in Brain Physiology: Cytokines in Synaptic Function. In NeuroImmune Biology, Vol 6: Cytokines and the Brain. Edited by Phelps C, Korneva E. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier; 2008: 111-144

60.            Kaushal V, Schlichter LC: Mechanisms of microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in a new model of the stroke penumbra. J Neurosci 2008, 28:2221-2230.

*61.            Tansey MG, Wyss-Coray T: Cytokines in CNS Inflammation and Disease. In Central Nervous System Diseases and Inflammation. Edited by Lane TE, Carson M, Bergmann C, Wyss-Coray T. New York, N.Y.: Springer; 2008: 59-106

*62.            Tobinick E: Perispinal etanercept produces rapid improvement in primary progressive aphasia: identification of a novel, rapidly reversible TNF-mediated pathophysiologic mechanism. Medscape J Med 2008, 10:135.

*63.            Tobinick EL, Gross H: Rapid cognitive improvement in Alzheimer’s disease following perispinal etanercept administration. J Neuroinflammation 2008, 5:2.

*64.            Tobinick EL, Gross H: Rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia following perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer’s disease. BMC Neurol 2008, 8:27.

65.            Youn DH, Wang H, Jeong SJ: Exogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha rapidly alters synaptic and sensory transmission in the adult rat spinal cord dorsal horn. J Neurosci Res 2008, 86:2867-2875.

*66.            Zanella JM, Burright EN, Hildebrand K, Hobot C, Cox M, Christoferson L, McKay WF: Effect of etanercept, a tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor, on neuropathic pain in the rat chronic constriction injury model. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2008, 33:227-234.

*67.            Bruni JE, Montemurro DG: Chapter 4: Blood Supply of the Nervous System. In Human Neuroanatomy: A Text, Brain Atlas, and Laboratory Dissection Guide. Edited by Bruni JE, Montemurro DG. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, Inc.; 2009: 51-64

68.            Esposito E, Cuzzocrea S: TNF-alpha as a therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases, ischemia-reperfusion injury and trauma. Curr Med Chem 2009, 16:3152-3167.

*69.            Furrer E, Hulmann V, Urech DM: Intranasal delivery of ESBA105, a TNF-alpha-inhibitory scFv antibody fragment to the brain. J Neuroimmunol 2009, 215:65-72.

*70.            Giuliani F, Vernay A, Leuba G, Schenk F: Decreased behavioral impairments in an Alzheimer mice model by interfering with TNF-alpha metabolism. Brain Res Bull 2009, 80:302-308.

*71.            Kato K, Kikuchi S, Shubayev VI, Myers RR: Distribution and tumor necrosis factor-alpha isoform binding specificity of locally administered etanercept into injured and uninjured rat sciatic nerve. Neuroscience 2009, 160:492-500.

72.            Marchand F, Tsantoulas C, Singh D, Grist J, Clark AK, Bradbury EJ, McMahon SB: Effects of Etanercept and Minocycline in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Eur J Pain 2009, 13:673-681.

*73.            McAfoose J, Baune BT: Evidence for a cytokine model of cognitive function. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2009, 33:355-366.

*74.            Tarditi A, Caricasole A, Terstappen G: Therapeutic targets for Alzheimer’s disease. Expert Opin Ther Targets 2009, 13:551-567.

*75.            Tobinick E: Perispinal etanercept for neuroinflammatory disorders. Drug Discov Today 2009, 14:168-177.

*76.            Tobinick E: Tumour necrosis factor modulation for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: rationale and current evidence. CNS Drugs 2009, 23:713-725.

*77.            Tobinick EL, Chen K, Chen X: Rapid intracerebroventricular delivery of Cu-DOTA-etanercept after peripheral administration demonstrated by PET imaging. BMC Res Notes 2009, 2:28.

*78.            Yiannopoulou K: Therapeutic targets in Alzheimer’s disease. Primary Psychiatry 2009, 16:29-36.

*79.            Alamin TF, Agarwal V: Chapter 5: The Mechanisms of Pain from Intervertebral Discs. In The Lumbar Intervertebral Disc. Edited by Phillips FM, Lauryssen C: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.; 2010

*80.            Beattie MS, Ferguson AR, Bresnahan JC: AMPA-receptor trafficking and injury-induced cell death. Eur J Neurosci 2010.

*81.            Buchhave P, Zetterberg H, Blennow K, Minthon L, Janciauskiene S, Hansson O: Soluble TNF receptors are associated with Abeta metabolism and conversion to dementia in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging 2010, 31:1877-1884.

*82.            Chakrabarty P: Current and future therapies for Alzheimer’s disease. In Protein misfolding diseases: Current and emerging principles and therapies. 2010: 711-774

*83.            Chen YM, Chen HH, Lan JL, Chen DY: Improvement of cognition, a potential benefit of anti-TNF therapy in elderly patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Joint Bone Spine 2010, 77:366-367.

*84.            Chio CC, Lin JW, Chang MW, Wang CC, Yang CZ, Chang CP: Therapeutic evaluation of etanercept in a model of traumatic brain injury. J Neurochem 2010, 115:921-929.

*85.            Clark IA, Alleva LM, Vissel B: The roles of TNF in brain dysfunction and disease. Pharmacol Ther 2010, 128:519-548.

*86.            Colton C, Wilcock DM: Assessing activation states in microglia. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2010, 9:174-191.

*87.            Elfferich MD, Nelemans PJ, Ponds RW, De Vries J, Wijnen PA, Drent M: Everyday cognitive failure in sarcoidosis: the prevalence and the effect of anti-TNF-alpha treatment. Respiration 2010, 80:212-219.

88.            Hachinski V, Donnan GA, Gorelick PB, Hacke W, Cramer SC, Kaste M, Fisher M, Brainin M, Buchan AM, Lo EH, et al: Stroke: working toward a prioritized world agenda. Stroke 2010, 41:1084-1099.

89.            Hughes JL, Beech JS, Jones PS, Wang D, Menon DK, Baron JC: Mapping selective neuronal loss and microglial activation in the salvaged neocortical penumbra in the rat. Neuroimage 2010, 49:19-31.

*90.            Kato K, Liu H, Kikuchi S, Myers RR, Shubayev VI: Immediate anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (etanercept) therapy enhances axonal regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. J Neurosci Res 2010, 88:360-368.

*91.            Labbate LA: Drugs for the Treatment of Dementia. In Handbook of Psychiatric Drug Therapy, 6th Edition. 6th edition. Edited by Labbate LA. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010: 254-264

*92.            McNaull BB, Todd S, McGuinness B, Passmore AP: Inflammation and anti-inflammatory strategies for Alzheimer’s disease–a mini-review. Gerontology 2010, 56:3-14.

*93.            Park KM, Bowers WJ: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediated signaling in neuronal homeostasis and dysfunction. Cell Signal 2010, 22:977-983.

*94.            Tobinick E: Perispinal etanercept: a new therapeutic paradigm in neurology. Expert Rev Neurother 2010, 10:985-1002.

*95.            Baratz R, Tweedie D, Rubovitch V, Luo W, Yoon JS, Hoffer BJ, Greig NH, Pick CG: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha synthesis inhibitor, 3, 6‚-thiothalidomide, reverses behavioral impairments induced by minimal traumatic brain injury in mice. Journal of neurochemistry 2011.

*96.            Budson AE, Kowall NW: Chapter 10: Towards an Effective Therapy for AD. In The Handbook of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias. Edited by Budson AE, Kowall NW. Malden, Massachussetts: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011: 301-311

*97.            Cavanagh C, Colby-Milley J, Farso M, Krantic S, Quirion R: Early molecular and synaptic dysfunctions in the prodromal stages of Alzheimer’s disease; focus on TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. Future Neurology 2011, 6:757-769.

*98.            Esposito E, Cuzzocrea S: Anti-TNF therapy in the injured spinal cord. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2011, 32:107-115.

99.            Folkersma H, Boellaard R, Yaqub M, Kloet RW, Windhorst AD, Lammertsma AA, Vandertop WP, van Berckel BN: Widespread and prolonged increase in (R)-(11)C-PK11195 binding after traumatic brain injury. J Nucl Med 2011, 52:1235-1239.

*100.            Frankola KA, Greig NH, Luo W, Tweedie D: Targeting TNF-alpha to elucidate and ameliorate neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2011, 10:391-403.

*101.            Hakim AM: Depression, Strokes and Dementia: New Biological Insights into an Unfortunate Pathway. Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology 2011, 2011.

*102.            Jain KK: Chapter 8: Neuroprotection in Alzheimer’s Disease. In The Handbook of Neuroprotection. Edited by Jain KK. Basel, Switzerland: Humana Press; 2011: 337-368

*103.            Jiang H, Hampel H, Prvulovic D, Wallin A, Blennow K, Li R, Shen Y: Elevated CSF levels of TACE activity and soluble TNF receptors in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Mol Neurodegener 2011, 6:69.

*104.            Jicha GA, Nelson PT: Management of frontotemporal dementia: targeting symptom management in such a heterogeneous disease requires a wide range of therapeutic options. Management 2011, 1:141-156.

*105.            Li M, Soczynska JK, Kennedy SH: Inflammatory biomarkers in depression: An opportunity for novel therapeutic interventions. Current psychiatry reports 2011:1-5.

*106.            Li X, Cudaback E, Keene CD, Breyer RM, Montine TJ: Suppressed microglial E prostanoid receptor 1 signaling selectively reduces tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 secretion from toll‚Äêlike receptor 3 activation. Glia 2011, 59:569-576.

*107.            Nathoo N, Caris EC, Wiener JA, Mendel E: History of the vertebral venous plexus and the significant contributions of Breschet and Batson. Neurosurgery 2011, 69:1007-1014; discussion 1014.

*108.            Olgiati P, Politis AM, Papadimitriou GN, De Ronchi D, Serretti A: Genetics of Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease: Update from the Alzgene Database and Analysis of Shared Pathways. International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 2011, 2011.

*109.            Piau A, Nourhashmi F, Hein C, Caillaud C, Vellas B: Progress in the development of new drugs in Alzheimer’s disease. The journal of nutrition, health & aging 2011, 15:45-57.

110.            Ramlackhansingh AF, Brooks DJ, Greenwood RJ, Bose SK, Turkheimer FE, Kinnunen KM, Gentleman S, Heckemann RA, Gunanayagam K, Gelosa G, Sharp DJ: Inflammation after trauma: microglial activation and traumatic brain injury. Ann Neurol 2011, 70:374-383.

*111.            Rossi D, Martorana F, Brambilla L: Implications of gliotransmission for the pharmacotherapy of CNS disorders. CNS Drugs 2011, 25:641-658.

*112.            Roth JL, Ott BR, Gaitanis JN, Blum AS: Chapter 15: The Neuroimmunology of Cortical Disease. In Clinical Neuroimmunology: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. Edited by Rizvi SA, Coyle PK. New York: Humana Press; 2011: 275-290

*113.            Seigers R, Fardell JE: Neurobiological basis of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment: a review of rodent research. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 2011, 35:729-741.

*114.            Shen CH, Tsai RY, Shih MS, Lin SL, Tai YH, Chien CC, Wong CS: Etanercept restores the antinociceptive effect of morphine and suppresses spinal neuroinflammation in morphine-tolerant rats. Anesth Analg 2011, 112:454-459.

*115.            Shi JQ, Shen W, Chen J, Wang BR, Zhong LL, Zhu YW, Zhu HQ, Zhang QQ, Zhang YD, Xu J: Anti-TNF-alpha reduces amyloid plaques and tau phosphorylation and induces CD11c-positive dendritic-like cell in the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse brains. Brain Res 2011, 1368:239-247.

*116.            Simen AA, Bordner KA, Martin MP, Moy LA, Barry LC: Cognitive dysfunction with aging and the role of inflammation. Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease 2011, 2:175-195.

*117.            Tobinick E: Rapid improvement of chronic stroke deficits after perispinal etanercept: three consecutive cases. CNS Drugs 2011, 25:145-155.

*118.            Townsend M: When Will Alzheimer’s Disease be Cured? A Pharmaceutical Perspective. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 2011, 24:43-52.

*Indicates that the Scientific Reference listed has cited one of more of the scientific publications of Edward Tobinick